Wanted by the Guelphs who won the Ghibellines in 1250, it was built five years after the first Republican public building, as the seat of the Capitano del Popolo. Then the palace became the seat of the Podestà, and finally of the Capitano di Giustizia named "Bargello".
Inside the palace there were, in addition to the cells in the basement, a torture chamber and a chapel, where the prisoners spent their last night. The executions took place in the large courtyard where there was the gallows, demolished in 1782 by the Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo.
Especially during the not-so-rare riots, as a warning of the supremacy of power, the hanged men were hung at the windows of the Bargello. When the guilty of a crime was not captured, there was a resort to infamy, portraying him on the walls of the Bargello.
In 1859 it was transformed into one of the most important museums.